An oil sketch by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo stolen from a private home in Turin, Italy, in or about August 1982, and an ancient Etruscan statuette stolen from the Oliveriano Archeological Museum in Pesaro, Italy, in January 1964, were returned today to Italian officials by the FBI, according to a bureau press release: “Each artwork was returned to Warrant Officer Angelo Ragusa of the Rome Office of the Archaeological Section of the Carabinieri Tutela Patrimonio Culturale, today at a repatriation ceremony at the United States Attorney’s Office in Manhattan.”
According to the release:
Following the theft, the painting’s whereabouts were unknown until it appeared for auction [at Christie’s Old Master Painting Sale] in New York in January 2014 [with an estimate of $500,000-700,000]. After being provided with evidence that the painting was the same piece previously reported stolen in 1982, the Tiepolo’s consignor agreed to its seizure by the FBI and its return to Italy. The United States Attorney’s Office submitted a proposed stipulation and order providing for the Tiepolo’s seizure and return, and the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York entered that order on January 23, 2015. Italian authorities continue to investigate the circumstances surrounding the theft of the painting, including the circumstances of its importation into the United States.
[The bronze statuette of Herakles dating from the 6th or 5th BC was stolen] along with several other items, including ivory tablets of the 9th and 13th centuries, early Christian glass artifacts from the Catacombs of Rome, and Italic and Roman statuettes. After its theft from the museum, the Statuette passed through several hands, and was eventually discovered by Italian and U.S. authorities when it was offered for sale by an auction house in Manhattan. After being provided with evidence that the Statuette was the same piece stolen from the museum, the consignor agreed to the FBI’s seizure of the Statuette for repatriation to Italy. The United States Attorney’s Office submitted a proposed stipulation and order providing for the Statuette’s seizure and return, and the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York entered that order on October 2, 2014.
The centerpiece of London-based Old Masters dealer Jean-Luc Baroni’s January 2014 exhibition/sale in New York was a massive painting by Jacopo Ligozzi, The Allegory of Virtue, Love Defending Virtue against Ignorance and Prejudice, which had originally been commissioned by Francesco I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany around 1580-85. The painting had last been recorded in 1865 – Baroni purchased it from a private German collection. At more than 11 feet tall, it overwhelmed and overpowered the ornate setting in which it was shown. According to the Art Tribune, Baroni has recently donated the painting to the Uffizi in Florence, Italy – the bequest made in honor of his father.
The Ligozzi is the subject of an exceptional catalogue available free, online that outlines the artist’s biography, along with the painting’s dating, provenance and rich iconography – it begins with this delightful teaser:
Jacopo Ligozzi was one of the most original artistic personalities of the late 16th and early 17th century Florence. He was of an anxious disposition and, tormented by a piety typical of the Counter-Reformation, he was obsessed with sin and death.
My kind of guy.
A report out from Scott Reyburn and Doreen Carvajal at the New York Times says an 1892 oil painting by Paul Gauguin, “Nafea Faa Ipoipo (When Will You Marry?),” has been sold to the Qatar Museums in Doha for nearly $300 million, which would make it one of the most expensive works of art ever sold (rumor of the sale was reported on Tuesday, February 3, by The Baer Faxt art newsletter).
According to the article:
The sale … was confirmed by the seller, Rudolf Staechelin, 62, a retired Sotheby’s executive living in Basel, Switzerland, who owns more than 20 works in a valuable collection of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, including the Gauguin, which has been on loan to the Kunstmuseum in Basel for nearly a half-century.
Two dealers with knowledge of the matter, who declined to be named because of concerns over client confidentiality, identified Qatar Museums, the emirate’s museum authority, as the buyer of the painting, but Mr. Staechelin declined to say whether the new owner was from that tiny, oil-rich country. “I don’t deny it and I don’t confirm it,” Mr. Staechelin said, also declining to disclose the price.
Qatar Museums in Doha did not respond to telephone calls and emails seeking comment.
Guy Morin, the mayor of Basel, was one of those who acknowledged news of the sale of the Gauguin, bemoaning its loss. On Tuesday, The Baer Faxt, an art world insiders’ newsletter, said Qatar was rumored to be the buyer of the Gauguin at $300 million, which would exceed the more than $250 million the emirate reportedly paid for Paul Cézanne’s “Card Players” in 2011. Todd Levin, a New York art adviser said, “I heard that this painting was in play late last year.” He added, “The price quoted to me at that time was in the high $200 millions, close to $300 million.”
In recent years the royal family of Qatar and Qatar Museums have been reported to be expansive buyers of trophy quality Western modern and contemporary art. The Art Newspaper said in May 2008 that Qatari buyers secured Mark Rothko’s “White Center (Yellow, Pink and Lavender on Rose)” for $72.8 million at Sotheby’s New York in May 2007, and Damien Hirst’s 2002 pill cabinet, “Lullaby Spring,” for about $19 million at Sotheby’s in London in June 2007. Dealers have also identified Qatar as the buyer of the 1904 Cézanne landscape “La Montagne Sainte-Victoire vue du Bosquet du Château Noir,” sold in a private transaction for $100 million by the Edsel and Eleanor Ford House in Detroit in 2013.
In a move that jolted Basel as news of the sale trickled out, Mr. Staechelin said that his family’s trust was ending its loan to the Kunstmuseum as a result of a dispute with the local canton. He said he was searching for a top museum to accept the Staechelin collection — which also includes works by van Gogh, Picasso and Pissarro — on loan, without a lending fee, with a promise to integrate those works into permanent exhibitions.
The paintings were amassed by his grandfather, a Swiss merchant also named Rudolf Staechelin, who befriended artists and purchased most of the works during and after World War I. In the postwar years, he advised the Kunstmuseum, which accepted the loan of his collection after his death in 1946.
His grandson, Mr. Staechelin, said the works had never been hung in his family’s home because they were too precious and that he saw them in a museum along with everyone else. Now, he added, he has decided to sell because it is the time in his life to diversify his assets. “In a way it’s sad,” he said, “but on the other hand it’s a fact of life. Private collections are like private persons. They don’t live forever.”
On the last few days before closing last weekend for renovations through 2016, the Kunstmuseum opened its doors for free and drew a record crowd of 7,500, many of whom caught the last glimpse of the Gauguin work in its longtime home.
The artist’s Tahiti-period paintings are among the most admired and coveted artworks of the Post-Impressionist period. This particular work, focusing on the enigmatic interplay between two young women in a Polynesian landscape, had been painted by the artist during the first of his two spells living in Tahiti.
The painting will still be on public display at a special Gauguin exhibition opening this month in Basel at the Beyeler Foundation and then will head with the rest of the collection for shows at the Reina Sofía museum in Madrid and the Phillips Collection in Washington through the rest of this year. The buyers will take ownership of the painting in January 2016, Mr. Staechelin said.
Local institutions in Basel, which learned definitively about the loss of the collection on Thursday morning, were still trying to come to grips with the news. The Kunstmuseum issued a brief statement about how the works would be sorely missed. “We are painfully reminded that permanent loans are still loans. The people of Basel do not own these, and they can be taken away at any moment,” the statement added.
Mr. Morin, the mayor, acknowledged that the Staechelin collection “will not return.” In his statement, he said the canton sought to persuade Mr. Staechelin to bring back the collection when the museum reopens in April 2016 with the construction of a new site linked to its existing building.
But for months, behind the scenes, the canton and the family trust squabbled over an existing loan contract for the works. Mr. Staechelin said that he had sought a new contract after the museum announced plans to shut down. He wanted to send the works on a tour to other countries. When canton officials failed to budge on a new contract, he said, he canceled the existing one because of a provision that requires that the artworks must be on public display.
“The real question is why only now?” Mr. Staechelin said of the Gauguin sale. “It’s mainly because we got a good offer. The market is very high and who knows what it will be in 10 years. I always tried to keep as much together as I could. There is no financial need to sell, but it is about diversification. Over 90 percent of our assets are paintings hanging for free in the museum. It’s not a healthy financial risk distribution.”
James Roundell, a director at the London dealership Simon Dickinson Fine Art, said, “A new category of ‘super trophy’ is emerging.” He added: “These items are generally in museums and they’re being sold privately, which explains the very high prices. If they were offered at auction, would there be competition at that level?”
With the passing of new generations, the family sold some paintings, including two Picasso works in 1967 that were purchased by the canton of Basel after voters agreed in a special referendum to pay for them. Picasso was so touched that he donated four more artworks to the canton.
In recent months, Mr. Staechelin said he fielded an offer from one museum that proposed to exhibit part of the collection. But he added that he preferred to find a new home for all the works. Buyers, he said, also contact him periodically about purchasing more works in the collection, but he is fending them off — for now.
“I have a lot of paintings and a little money,” Mr. Staechelin said. “I never saw these paintings as pure investments. It’s difficult if you look at a work and only see money because then something has gone terribly wrong. For me they are family history and art. But they are also security and investments.”
If confirmed, this would be a major discovery – the only know surviving bronzes by the great Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo. According to the Guardian, the two meter-high male nudes astride panthers (take that Katy Perry), which will be on view at Cambridge’s FitzWilliam Museum, have been the subject of years of investigation and testing.
According to the Guardian:
Crucial to the attribution of the bronzes, which belong to a private British owner, has been a tiny detail from a drawing by an apprentice of Michelangelo, now in the Musée Fabre in Montpellier, France. The drawing shows in one corner a muscular youth riding a panther in a similar pose.
Last autumn, Paul Joannides, professor of art history at Cambridge University, connected the sculptures to the drawing.
Further research included a neutron scan at a research institute in Switzerland, which placed the bronzes in the first decade of the 16th century. Investigations by clinical anatomist Professor Peter Abrahams, from the University of Warwick, suggested every detail in the bronzes was textbook perfect Michelangelo – from the six packs to the belly buttons, which are as artist portrayed them on his marble statue of David.
“Even a peroneal tendon is visible, as is the transverse arch of the foot,” Abrahams writes in the book that accompanies the discovery.
The history of the sculptures is as fascinating as they are beautiful. They are named after their first recorded owner, Baron Adolphe de Rothschild, a grandson of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, who founded the banking dynasty. It is possible that Rothschild bought them from one of the Bourbon kings of Naples and if so they may have come from the Villa Reale at Caserta where the Bourbon art treasures were displayed. After Rothschild’s death in 1900 the bronzes were inherited by Maurice de Rothschild. When he died in 1957 they went into a private French collection and were effectively forgotten about until they came to auction in 2002 and were bought by the current unnamed British owner.
They were sold at Sotheby’s where experts loosely associated them with the Florentine sculptor Cellini.
They began to interest academics once more and featured in an exhibition on Willem van Tetrode at the Frick Collection and then at the Royal Academy’s big Bronze show in 2012, where they were attributed to the circle of Michelangelo and dated towards the middle of the 16th century. Experts who saw them at the RA recognised them as Michelangelesque but were reluctant to assign them directly to the man himself.
The attribution is particular exciting because no other Michelangelo bronzes survive. A two-thirds size bronze David, known to have been made for a French grandee’s chateau, was lost during the French Revolution and a spectacular statue of Pope Julius II was melted down for artillery by rebellious Bolognese.
Frankfurt’s Städel Museum has acquired an early oil on copper by the Bolognese painter Guido Reni from the London-based Old Master paintings dealer Jean-Luc Baroni, according to the Art Tribune. The painting appeared at Koller auction house’s Old Master sale in Zurich March 22, 2013 having been tucked away in a private Swiss collection for more than 40 years. Estimated at 80,000-120,000 Swiss Francs, it sold to Baroni for 1,227,500 Swiss Francs. The painting was purchased from Baroni with assistance from the Friends of the Museum.
For more on the painting, it’s history and iconography, here’s the Koller catalogue entry:
This Assumption of Mary with its vibrant colours and numerous figures is a distinctive and powerful example of Bolognese artist Guido Reni’s early work, which emerged recently in a Swiss private collection where it had remained undiscovered for over forty years.
Besides the artistic execution, the historically significant and impressive provenance is espe- cially noteworthy. Around 1795 to 1812 the painting was in the Sampieri Collection in Bologna. When in 1812 it was purchased in Milan by Eugène de Beauharnais (1781-1824), the son of Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais (1760-1794) and Joséphine de Beauharnais (1763-1814), it entered the highest aristocratic circle of the period: the family of Napoleon Bonaparte. The label on the back of the copper plate (see fig. 2) and an engraving in a catalogue of the collection published in 1852 confirm this aristocratic provenance (see fig. 1).
In fact, it was due to Eugène’s mother, Joséphine de Beauharnais, who regained her footing in society after the revolutionary turmoil and death of her husband at the guillotine, and married General Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796. At Napoleon’s side in 1804 Joséphine de Beauharnais became Empress of France and Napoleon adopted her son Eugène de Beauharnais in 1806. Eugène married shortly thereafter Princess Auguste Amalie of Bavaria (1788-1851) and as Napoleon’s reign came to a close in 1814, the pair withdrew to the Bavarian court in Munich. There in 1817 Eugène’s father- in-law, the first king of the Kingdom of Bavaria, Maximilian I Joseph, granted him the titles of Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstätt, as well as their coats of arms. The prince from then on led a quiet life and died in his Munich palace in 1824. His youngest son, Maximilian III, Duke of Leuchtenberg (1817-1852), married in 1839 Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna Romanova (1819-1876), the eldest daughter of the Russian Tsar Nicholas I, in Saint Petersburg and presumably our painting in this way entered the collection of the Hermitage, where the art historian Gustav Friedrich Waagen (1794-1868) later inspected it, publishing it in his “Gemälde- Sammlung der Ermitage zu St. Petersburg” of 1864 (see Literature).
The Bolognese art historian Carlo Cesare Malvasia (1616-1693) mentioned the painting as early as 1678 in his collection of the biographies of eminent Baroque painters in Bologna, “Felsina Pittrice.” Based on Malvasia’s chronolo- gical sequence of Reni’s work, Stephen Pepper dates our painting to 1596-97 (see Literature). In the pose of Maria, Pepper notes particularly the influence of Annibale (1560-1609) and Agostino (1557-1602) Carracci and their altarpieces on the same subject, both in the Pinacoteca Bologna today. Annibale’s Assumption is dated 1592 and was once in the Bolognese church of San Francesco. Agostino’s Assumption, formerly in San Salvatore, also in Bologna, is dated to 1592- Abb. 294 (see Pepper, 1969, p. 476). Reni, after his artistic apprenticeship under Denys Calvaert (around 1540-1619), joined the workshop of the Carracci brothers around 1595. There he came particularly under the influence of Agostino in the years 1596-97, after Annibale moved to Rome in the autumn of 1595. However, the respective representations of the Assumption theme by Agostino and Reni are each wholly individual. Agostino accentuates the floating character of the pose and expresses through the upward reaching arms and striding movement of the Virgin’s left foot the subject of the Assumption. Guido Reni instead gives the pose of his Mary a certain gravity, which is intensified by the outstretched arms and the upward facing palms. In the angels who support her from the side and below, a sense of effort can be seen clearly. A remarkable feature of Reni’s work is the individualised and varied arrangement of the angelic host, depicted playing music with various instruments. Pepper also recognises, particularly in their faces, the influence of his first teacher Denys Calvaert.
UPDATE: The so-called Caravaggio bombed – bidding stopped at $2.7 million.
Indeed, it was barley worth the effort to trudge through the ten inches of snow that hit New York for the morning sale at Christie’s as one lot after another failed to sell – a total of 31 of 55 were bought in and one was withdrawn. It was a bigger mess than the streets of New York.
The afternoon saw some improvement (in reality, it could not had gotten much worse). The Bronzino received one actual bid and sold for the low estimate of $8 million ($9,125,000 with the buyer’s premium).
ORIGINAL POST: Christie’s January 28, 2015 sale of Old Master paintings has more than a few familiar faces – works that were featured in recent auctions and failed to sell. Notable among them is the Bronzino portrait (above) that showed up two years ago with an estimate of $12-18 million, only to crash and burn at $11.5 million. There’s also a strange Cranach (which is saying something considering his oeuvre is characteristically strange) that appeared in July 2013 at Christie’s in London with an estimate of £1,500,000 – £2,000,000 ($2,328,000 – $3,104,000), but tanked at £950K. And, there’s the Guido Reni Martyrdom of Saint Apollonia that sold at Sotheby’s, London, 9 July 2008 Sale for £1,833,250 or $3,614,986, was featured among a group of Italian paintings offered for private sale in conjunction with last January’s Old Master’s sale in New York, and is now appearing with a severely devalued estimate of $1.2-1.8 million.
The January 28 sale is divide into two sections – a morning section with 55 lots, including what is purportedly the earliest Caravaggio, and a themed afternoon sale called Renaissance with 54 lots, which includes the Bronzino.
The sale also includes some fine Dutch and Flemish pictures, a wonderful pair of Hubert Roberts that I first saw at Wildenstein in 1988 and a respectable pair of Canalettos.
Winter skating scenes had been a popular subject in Netherlandish painting for nearly a century by the time this work was painted in 1653, made popular by Pieter Brughel the Elder, Hendrick Averkamp, and others. The genre is unusual for Salomon van Ruysdael as there are only some 20 works of this theme. The artist spent much of his career in Haarlem, but did travel throughout the country and had a penchant for carefully depicting the cities and towns he visited. According to the catalogue:
The city depicted here is Vianen in the province of Utrecht. The skyline is distinguished by Batestein castle, a residence of the Brederode family on the river Lek. During the Eighty Years War, the castle served as a meeting place for leaders of the Dutch revolt, while later it was known for its ornamental gardens built by Johan Wolfert Brederode in 1630. Vianen was a popular site for artists. Ruysdael painted the city in milder weather in a River Landscape now in the New Walk Museum and Art Gallery, Leicester (inv. L.F74.1955.0.0). Hendrick Vroom had depicted the river and castle with its gardens around 1620-1625 (Stedelijk Museum Vianen, inv. 1250), while a more direct precedent for Van Ruysdael’s work is a skating scene with Batestein castle by Jan van Goyen from 1624 in the collection of Baron van Dedem … Rather than mimic the gray skies and muted light of Van Goyen, however, Ruysdael preferred to depict the bright blue sky and vibrant color of a crisp winter day.
From the sale catalogue:
This is one of Balthasar van der Ast’s largest works on panel, and was likely painted as a showpiece: a virtuoso demonstration of his talents that would have been set up in his studio to demonstrate the range of his artistic repertoire. Visiting clients would have had the option of selecting one or more elements from the composition, which thus functioned as a visual menu of sorts. The price of their acquisition would have been determined by the number of still-life details included, as well as by the painting’s scale. Van der Ast’s choice of subjects for this masterpiece reflects the popular fascination with exoticism, fueled by Holland’s thriving trade with far-reaching lands, particularly through the newly formed Dutch East India Company.
This interest in international commerce and exploration was complimented at home by a growing obsession with horticulture, resulting in the creation of gardens showcasing a variety of rare specimens and so serving as a kind of living Kunstkammer. Among the most desirable of buds was the tulip, and accordingly Van der Ast often included them in his paintings. Here, four stems with variegated petals appear in the vase at right. An example of highly coveted Wan-Li porcelain, the vessel also contains roses, lily of the valley and a single blue iris, with a French marigold set behind it on the table. This floral arrangement could easily stand on its own as a ‘flower pot’ still-life (blompot), as revealed by several similar compositions produced by Van der Ast, such as his nearly contemporary Flowers in a Vase with Shells and Insects in the National Gallery, London (inv. NG6593).
For at least the past 30 years, this work, purportedly the earliest know composition by Caravaggio, has appeared in exhibitions globally and has been labelled as autograph. There are at least two other known examples, each with it supporters and detractors. In the late 1790’s it was given to Murillo, and in the 1920s it was attributed to Le Nain. The present attribution was first made in the early 1950s, though doubts persist as the sale catalogue acknowledges: “While its autograph status has been questioned by some over the past several decades, many scholars support the attribution to Caravaggio, including Sir Denis Mahon, Barry Nicolson, John Gash, Luigi Salerno, Mina Gregori, and Beverly Louise Brown.”
As for the picture itself, the catalogue provides some background and context:
Painted just after his arrival in Rome, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s Boy peeling a fruit may be the artist’s earliest known work. Already, we see in it many of the hallmarks that would revolutionize the art world, both in Italy and abroad, and would make him one of the most innovative and recognizable artists in history. A young boy, seemingly painted from life, sits at a table peeling a Seville or Bergamot orange that he has selected from a bunch of fruit and shafts of wheat laid out before him. The composition is conceived with the dramatic chiaroscuro that is one of the defining characteristics of Caravaggio’s style, which would fascinate and inspire generations of painters from Giuseppe Ribera, Artemisia Gentileschi and Gerard van Honthorst to contemporary artists such as Frank Stella, Cindy Sherman and Vik Muniz. Lit from the left, the boy’s brilliant white shirt and pale flesh leaps out against the dark, almost monochromatic background. Caravaggio presents the viewer with an intimate scene of contemplation. Lyrical in its simplicity and elegance, this painting also stands as one of the earliest examples of a new genre, combining a half-length figure with a still life of fruit.
Caravaggio’s biographer Giulio Mancini (1559-1630) records that the young artist painted this composition while he was living in the house of Monsignor Pandolfo Pucci da Recanati, whom the artist contemptuously dubbed “Monsignor Insalata” due to his miserly habit of serving the young artist meals consisting entirely of salad. Mancini writes that during this time, Caravaggio painted copies of devotional images and works intended to be sold on the open market, including “a boy who cries at being bitten by a lizard that he holds in his hand, and afterwards a boy who peels a pear with a knife” (“e per vendere, un putto che piange per essere stato morso da un racano che tiene in mano, e dopo pur un putto che mondava una pera con il cortello”; Considerazioni sulla puttura, c. 1617-21, quoted in The Age of Caravaggio, op. cit., p. 220). There must have been some uncertainty on Mancini’s part about the latter of these paintings, as in one of the two manuscripts of the Considerazioni, he refers to the fruit as an apple (“una mela”). A plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that, having found a successful composition, Caravaggio painted multiple versions to meet the market demand, a practice that he would abandon later in his career.
As noted above, this work has been around the block and then some in recent years, and is now estimated to bring no more than one-half of the $3.6 million it made in July 2008.
This small oil on copper was likely painted in Prague in 1612. The catalogue contains decent accounting of the artist, his career and significance:
Famed for the miniaturist precision which characterizes his paintings, drawings, and etchings, Roelandt Savery was active in the Netherlands from the turn of the 17th century. From as early as 1604 he is documented in Prague, where he had been summoned to the court of Rudolf II and worked alongside the painters Bartholomeus Spranger and Hans von Aachen, the silversmith Paulus van Vianen, and the sculptor Adriaen de Vries, among many other great artists, scientists, and thinkers.
Still-life pictures depicting elaborate bouquets of flowers in stone niches figure among Savery’s earliest works; two pictures which date to 1600 have in fact been identified as the earliest dated, independent flower paintings in Netherlandish art. It is possible, in fact, that it was Savery’s work in this genre which caught the attention of Rudolf II, a renowned collector and admirer of flower-pieces who needed a successor to the great Joris Hoefnagel – famed for the scientific naturalism which characterized his depictions of flowers, insects, and animals – who had died in 1600. In 1606-1607 Savery was sent by Rudolf into Bohemia and the Alps, where he drew mountain peaks, waterfalls, and other natural wonders that figure in some of his most brilliant landscapes and inform his sparkling depictions of insects and reptiles in later flower-pieces (an album of drawings made during this trip was later owned by Rembrandt). Other works from this period, such as the Flowers in a Niche of 1611 (England, private collection, Müllenmeister no. 272) were clearly inspired not from life but from marvelous works available for study in Rudolf’s collection, such as the watercolor and gouache drawings in Joris Hoefnagel’s emblematic natural history compendium The Four Elements(National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.). Towards the end of his life, after settling in Utrecht in 1619, Savery turned increasingly towards flower-pieces, which culminated in the extravagant Bouquet in a Niche of 1624 (Utrecht, Centraal Museum), whose allusions to the brevity of life give the painting a vanitas character.
The influence of Caravaggio on Dutch and Flemish painting informed the careers of many 17th century painters, among them Rombouts. According to the catalogue:
Born in Antwerp, Rombouts studied with Abraham Janssen before embarking on a prolonged sojourn to Italy, where, like the Utrecht painters Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst and Dirck van Barburen, he spent a considerable period of time, living principally in Rome (though perhaps in Florence, too) between 1616 and 1625. His style was transformed by his study of contemporary Roman painting – especially that of Caravaggio and his followers, in particular Bartolomeo Manfredi – and after returning to Antwerp in 1625 and joining the Guild of Saint Luke, he enjoyed a successful career producing genre scenes such as the present painting. Unlike other Northern Caravaggisti, however, the Flemish origins of his style remained as important as the Italian influences that acted upon it.
Rombouts often painted several versions of his compositions – for example, there are two autograph versions of The Tooth-Puller (Prado, Madrid and Galerie Narodni, Prague), and at least three versions of The Card Players (Antwerp, Saint-Petersburg and Madrid) – so it is not surprising that a second version of A Merry Company is known, in the Karlsen Collection in California (formerly Weiss Gallery, London); it is somewhat smaller in size (155 x 223.5 cm.) and unsigned.
These two imposing canvases from 1774 are emblematic of Robert’s appealingly histrionic compositional style. As the catalogue notes:
Few painters in the history of European art were as capable of presenting the grandeur and sublimity of nature as was Robert, while also conveying its charms and less exalted delights, and the present pair of paintings displays his gifts at their most impressive and appealing. Remarkably, this spectacular, monumental pair of paintings seems to have gone unrecorded in the artist’s lifetime. However, the inventiveness of the paintings’ complementary compositions, the boldness and variety of their handling, their subtle and poetic recreation of the effects of light and atmosphere, as well as the towering scale and ambition of the two canvases indicates that they were made for a wealthy and prominent collector, yet to be identified. The two vast canvases ingeniously contrast differing effects of water – the violent force of nature that is the powerful falls of the cascade, balanced by the gentle, placid waters lapping against the sides of the canal – as well as the differing effects of light – the hot blaze of a summer sun in Italy, in The Cascade; the cool light of northern France as the day comes to a close and the sun begins to set, in The Canal.
This pair of small canvases by Canaletto comes with a daunting estimate and is apparently rare – the catalogue notes that it’s “one of only two such pairs on this scale to be recorded.” The picture were among ten Canalettos once owned by the Neave family, acquired by “Richard Neave (1731-1814), who was created a baronet in 1795. Neave, whose father and grandfather were both London merchants, greatly enhanced the fortune of his family. He was a director of the Bank of England for nearly half a century, served as Governor of this from 1783, and was Chairman of the Society of West Indian Merchants, which had considerable political influence and representing the interests of the sugar trade.”
The catalogue also includes the following:
The view of the Piazza San Marco shows, from the left, the eight eastern-most bays of the Procuratie Vecchie, begun in 1513, the Torre dell’ Orologio, designed by Mauro Codussi and finished in 1499 but with the additions completed in 1755, the houses on the northern side of the Campo di San Basso, with a campanile (San Zulian?) behind, the left half of the façade of the Basilica, and, framing the composition, the north-west corner of the Campanile. In the companion picture, the lateral (west) façade of the Doge’s Palace, begun in 1422, is shown, with, to the left, the south-west corner of the Tesoro of the Basilica, and, in shadow, the Porta della Carta of 1438 by the Bon brothers, and to the right, in steep perspective, buildings lining the Riva degli Schiavone, and on the extreme right the Column of Saint Mark. As so often with pairs of Venetian views by the artist the view points are in a sense complementary, as parts of each composition could be seen at different angles from the viewpoints of the other, respectively on a diagonal two thirds of the way across the Piazza and immediately in front of Sansovino’s Libreria. The fall of the shadows indicates that the San Marco view is shown in late morning light, while that of the Doge’s Palace is seen in the afternoon.
I’m a fan of Herri met de Bles and his idiosyncratic tableau, hence the inclusion of this work. As the catalogue notes:
Only a few details are know about the life of Herri met de Bles, who is generally identified as the “Henry de Patinir” registered as a Master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1535. Some scholars have suggested he was the nephew of the great Joachim Painir, in whose footsteps Herri helped established the vast, rocky, blue-green landscapes which swiftly gained popularity in the southern Netherlands. After Patinir’s death in 1524, Herri became the genre’s leading and most prolific practitioner, apparently even gaining great popularity in Italy where he became known as “Civetta” due to the little owls which frequently appear in his paintings. These birds do not, however, figure in all his compositions, and even when present cannot always be a sure sign of his authorship.
The present work is an excellent example of Herri’s distinctive style: eschewing the grey, craggy rock formations which in Patinir’s landscapes protrude suddenly and improbably from their surroundings, Herri has sought a more cohesive effect, depicting his fantastical mountains in more realistic browns and mossy greens and arranging them such that they seem more integrated with their surroundings and the blue-green plains beyond. This tendency towards a more naturalistic vista – even if his views are entirely imagined – is typical of Herri’s work, and perhaps explains why his pictures also teem with details of everyday life, from dogs dashing across patches of grass to little swans resting in the reeds along the riverbank.
According to the provenance, this was “[p]ainted for the funerary monument of the painter Pieter Goedkint the Elder (d. 1583), Onze-Lieve-Vrouwbroeders.” Sure is better than a bundt cake or a casserole for the grieving family. The biography in the catalogue is intriguing:
Jacob de Backer is among the most mysterious artists of the 16th century Antwerp School. A precocious talent, he was short-lived, dying, according to Karel van Mander, at the age of 30. Despite his brief career, he seems to have been prodigiously industrious and prolific; and although he was well-regarded, neither his date of birth nor his date of death were recorded, and his lifespan is usually given as either c. 1555-1585 or c. 1560-1590. He therefore occupies a key moment in the development of Antwerp painting, between the generation of Frans Floris (1519/20-1570) and that of Rubens (1577-1640). According to van Mander, Jacob (or Jacques) de Backer was born in Antwerp, the son of a “very good painter” who emigrated to France and died there. Jacob was apprenticed to a painter and picture dealer of Italian origin but Protestant confession known as Antonio da Palermo (d. 1588/9). Van Mander tells us that Jacob’s works “are very sought after and wanted everywhere and enrich the cabinets or galleries of art lovers in many places… In short, he is easily one of the best colorists that Antwerp has known: he had a fleshy manner of painting because he highlighted not just with white but with flesh color, so that he earned eternal fame among painters” (K. van Mander, Schilder-boeck, Haarlem, 1603-1604, ff. 231v-232r, ed. and trans. H. Miedema, The Lives of the Illustrious Netherlandish and German Painters, Doornspijk, 1994, I, pp. 185-6).
Such an odd painting.
The brief catalogue entry is worth reading:
The Master of the Misericordia, named in 1958 by Richard Offner after the impressive altarpiece in the Accademia at Florence, was one of the most effective and productive painters active in Florence in the period from c. 1355 to 1390. Formed in the world of Taddeo Gaddi and Bernardo Daddi, the dominant Florentine artists of the previous generation, his development paralleled that of Giovanni da Milano, and anticipated that of the Florentine masters of the late Trecento. Offner’s core group of pictures by the Master was significantly expanded by Boskovits in 1973 (M. Boskovits,Pittura Fiorentina alla vigilia del Rinascimento, 1370-1400, Florence, 1975, pp. 366-72) and by Chiodo.
This characteristically incisive panel was in 1987 accompanied by a letter from Roberto Longhi assigning it to the Maestro di Sant’Eligio, whose oeuvre has since been subsumed into that of the Misericordia Master. As Chiodo noted, the punch employed for the borders is apparently the same as that used in pictures by the artist at Bern and Cambridge, Massachusetts (op. cit., pls. XXII and XXXV) (cf M. Frinta, Punched decoration: on late medieval panel and miniature painting, I, Prague, 1998, p. 399).
From the catalogue:
While no direct prototype for this intact triptych is known, the fantastic and monstrous creatures in the foreground, as well as the stylized figures with exaggerated facial features, closely recall the works of the great Netherlandish painter Hieronymus Bosch. An immensely popular subject in medieval and Renaissance art, the story of Christ’s descent to Limbo, known as the Harrowing of Hell, has no direct Biblical source although it had already become part of Christian dogma by the 4th century. The earliest accounts of this episode are found in one of Saint Augustine’s sermons and the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, but the most important source for the Netherlandish artist who painted the present triptych would have been Jacobus de Voragine’s immensely popular Golden Legend. The 13th-century text relates that immediately following the Crucifixion, “as soon as Christ yielded up his spirit, his soul, united to his deity, went down to the depths of hell. When he came to the edge of darkness like some splendid, terrible raider, the impious infernal legions, terrified as they gazed on him, began to ask ‘Whence is he, so strong, so terrible, so splendid, so noble? [… ] Who then is this, who comes to our gates so boldly, and not only has no fear of our torments but also frees others from our chains?’”(J. de Voragine, The Golden Legend, trans. by W.G. Ryan, Princeton, 1993, I, p. 222). The bound souls whom Christ liberates are the Old Testament saints and prophets, along with John the Baptist, all of whom had died without being able to receive Christian Sacraments and thus were forced wait in Limbo until the coming of the Messiah. The episode concludes with Christ entrusting the souls to Saint Michael, who leads them up into Heaven, where they will spend the rest of eternity.
It’s amazing to find works by Nicolás Francés in the sale here and at Sotheby’s considering their scarcity. As the catalogue notes:
This exquisite, jewel-like panel is a rare and well-preserved example of early 15th-century painting from León, an important city in northwest Spain, then part of the powerful Kingdom of Castile. León was the seat of an active artistic center, which formulated its own, sophisticated version of the International Gothic Style then spreading throughout Europe, blending Italianate elements with naturalistic details betraying the influence of early Netherlandish painting.
The foremost exponent of that style, Nicolás Francés is documented as early as 1434 as having painted the ‘Retablo Mayor’, an immense altarpiece for main altar of the Cathedral of León (dismantled in 1740 but some panels of which are still visible in the cathedral today). Francés’ name strongly suggests he was of French origin, and his refined style is indeed reminiscent of the courtly art developed in Paris and Burgundy in the early 15th-century (compare for instance the precious tondo of The Virgin and Child on the Crescent Moon, c. 1410-20; The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore). That a foreigner would be entrusted with such a prestigious commission as the León cathedral altarpiece is a testament to the Francés’ importance and reputation at the time, and while he remained on the cathedral’s payroll for most of his life, he also attracted the patronage of such prestigious individuals as Fernando López Saldaña, treasurer to King John II of Castile, for whom he painted a triptych showing scenes from the Life of the Virgin intended for his private chapel in the convent of Santa Clara de Tordesillas in Valladolid. Another altarpiece, dedicated to the Lives of the Virgin and Saint Francis, is now visible at the Prado in Madrid (these two latter works being undisputedly attributed to the artist by P.J. Sánchez Cantón, Maestro Nicolás Francés, Madrid, 1964, on stylistic grounds).
I’m always intrigued by regional schools of art, particularly those of Germanic origin and from Bohemia, and how their artists interpret and massage pictorial norms and orthodoxies. One need only go to the fine art museums in Prague and Brno to see the inventiveness of these practitioners, and the brilliance/violence of their compositions. From the sale catalogue:
This remarkably well-preserved triptych was almost certainly painted for the Spanish poet, historian and diplomat Don Pedro López de Ayala of Castile (1332-1407), in whose funerary chapel it was displayed for centuries. Brilliantly colored and ornamented with refined, calligraphic goldwork, the triptych is an exceptional example of devotional artwork from early-15th-century Thuringia. Most celebrated for its ceramic production, this southeast region of lower Germany enjoyed a rich educational and artistic renaissance in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, centered upon the medieval town of Erfurt. Located at the commercial crossroads of highways between the Rhine and the Slavic lands, Erfurt and its artisans employed the styles and techniques brought to the town by merchants ranging from Gaul to Byzantium, synthesizing the Gothic linearism and Byzantine richness of surface to create a local style fully on display in the present work.
Tradition holds that the present altarpiece was a gift from Charles VI, the fourth king in the House of Valois, to Chancellor Ayala. Although no documentary evidence survives to support the tradition, the Spaniard’s service to the French court as an ambassador for the King of Castile rendered him an indispensable political figure – one surely worthy of such a donation. Primarily a poet and historian, Ayala’s diplomatic duties expanded when Charles VI officially named him to the Royal Court, and then as one of his ‘gentlemen’ bodyguards during the Battle of Roosebeke in 1382. The unusual golden fleur-de-lis pattern stenciled on the rouged verso of the triptych’s wings (see flap), has been read as further evidence of a royal commission. Though an unusual incarnation of this motif, this pattern evokes the crest of King Charles VI of France, which incorporates three fleurs-de-lis in a triangular composition. Certainly, the triptych has an air of nobility in its conception: the vibrant colors and rich textures of the figures’ dress, such as Saint Longinus’s robe, with its elaborately patterned gold embroidery, reflect the styles that were popular in the French court at this time.
The Ayala triptych illustrates scenes from The Passion of Christ as the following seven Stations of the Cross (from upper left to lower right): the Betrayal of Judas; the Flagellation; Christ on the Road to Calvary; the Crucifixion; theDescent from the Cross; the Entombment; and Christ’s Descent into Limbo. The bright and beautifully preserved palette employed throughout these scenes is an unusual feature of this Northern European triptych; vivid reds and foliate greens distinguish this panel from more somber contemporary devotionals. Gentle gradations in these colors, found in the folds of the antagonist figures’ robes, the translucent quality of Christ’s loincloth and the linen entombment cloth evince a glazed quality reminiscent of the Thuringian ceramic tradition. Further, the delicate craftsmanship of the punched gilt work haloing Christ, the Virgin Mary, Joseph, Mary Magdalene and Mary, wife of Cleopas, suggests that the creator of this triptych was familiar with the work of Conrad von Soest (c. 1360-after 1422), one of the foremost German painters of his time. Conrad traveled throughout Westphalia, disseminating the undulating forms and folds and ornately stenciled patterns associated with the International Courtly style. Indeed, Conrad von Soest is generally credited with introducing the multi-figural Calvary scene to Germany, and his designs may have served as inspiration for the present work.
A record haul of rare antiquities illegally looted from Italy and discovered during raids on the Swiss warehouses of an accused Sicilian art dealer was unveiled by authorities on Wednesday.
Police estimated the value of the 5,361 vases, bronze statues and frescoes at about €50m (£38m).
The works, dating from the eighth century BC to the third century, were laid out at the Terme di Diocleziano National Roman Museum and may go on public display before being returned to museums in southern Italy.
“This is by a long shot the biggest recovery in history in terms of the quantity and quality of the archaeological treasures,” the Carabineri general Mariano Mossa said.
The items were found during an investigation into Basel-based art dealer Gianfranco Becchina and his wife, Ursula Juraschek, also known as Rosie, who were accused by prosecutors of being part of an antiquities trafficking network that involved “tombaroli” tomb raiders in southern Italy, dealers and buyers around the globe.
Becchina remained free because the charges against him had expired, police said.
The investigation showed how dealers would forge provenance papers for the antiquities and create fictitious histories for them, so that museums and private collectors could in theory buy them in good faith, police said.
Police said that as a result, Italian authorities now had detailed documentation of Becchina’s inventory, including photos and receipts, that were also found in the warehouses.
David Gill, professor of archaeological heritage at University Campus Suffolk and author of the Lootingmatters blog, said the documentation will likely point to objects that were now in top museums and would certainly be on the Italians’ list for repatriation.
For over a decade, Italy has been on a campaign to reclaim treasures that were looted from its soil and sold to top museums and private collectors.
Two works by the great Netherlandish sculptor Willem Danielsz. van Tetrode from the Abbott Guggenheim Collection are up for auction at Christie’s on January 27, 2015. The artist, subject of a landmark monographic exhibition at the Frick in 2003, worked, according to the museum’s press release of the time, in Italy for some two decades where he “studied and restored antique marble sculpture and worked for such celebrated artists as Benvenuto Cellini (1500–1571). From these experiences, he created expressive small bronzes showing the muscular male nude in poised or violent motion.” The sale catalogue notes, “He would later move to Rome and Vasari tells us that he worked for Guglielmo della Porta, although no known work from this period survives. In circa 1558 he executed what was perhaps his first independent commission, an architectural cabinet adorned with numerous bronzes after antique subjects for Gianfrancesco Orsini, Count of Pitigliano. Known as the Pitigliano Cabinet, it was eventually presented as a gift to Cosimo I de’ Medici. The bronzes – which were separated from the cabinet but survive (apart from one) in the Bargello, Florence – serve as the touchstone for much of Tetrode’s early work.” Upon his return to Delft, Tetrode initiated a passion for collecting small bronzes in the North and inspired the muscular classicism in the work of younger artists, such as Hendrick Goltzius.”
The Hercules Pomarius and Écorché of a Man are two remarkable examinations of the male nude – the one heroic and defiant, the other tortured. According to the sale catalogue, “[t]here are four versions ofHercules Pomarius: one in the Rijksmuseum, one in the Robert H. Smith Collection (promised to the National Gallery, Washington), one owned by the Hearn Family Trust, New York and the Abbott Guggenheim model.”
About the Hercules, the Frick release states:
In Rome, exciting discoveries of monumental antique marbles, like the Farnese Hercules in 1545, placed renewed emphasis on the dramatic muscular force of Hellenistic sculpture. Tetrode’s response to this powerful strain of Hellenistic classicism was both immediate and long lasting. One of his first documented small bronzes, finished in 1559, is a much-reduced reproduction of the giant marble hero at rest. About five years later Tetrode would inventively energize this subject in one of his mature compositions, the Hercules Pomarius. Although as heavily muscled as his classical forebear, Tetrode’s Hercules is, instead, poised for action. Edgily balanced on the balls of his feet, Hercules gazes sharply to the right and wields his heavy club as lightly as if it were a Roman short sword.
According to the sale catalogue, “[t]he present bronze écorché is known in one other closely similar bronze example (private collection, New York), a variant bronze example (with bronze support; Palazzo Venezia, Rome, inv. no. PV 10822) and a variant lead example (formerly Castiglione Collection, now Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, inv. no. KK. 10141).”
The Frick release adds:
Tetrode returned to his native Delft in 1567, bringing with him the models he had produced after almost twenty years in Italy. To Netherlandish artists, collectors, and humanists, it was as if Italy’s glorious classical and modern artistic achievements had been presented to them, in breathtaking combination, by a single hand. Tetrode’s work inspired the great interest in small bronzes in the Italian manner that was to last for well over a century in the Netherlands. His aggressively muscular nudes helped inspire the younger Hendrick Goltzius’s powerful brand of classicism. In all his sculptures, Tetrode memorably expressed the emotional power of the human figure as it was captured in muscular motion. But this ability is, perhaps, most movingly evinced in a late bronze that was intended as an anatomical model for his fellow artists. The Écorché unforgettably depicts a flayed man rearing back on his heels, each revealed muscle poised in tension, as he is almost miraculously suspended by the motion of his upswept arm.
UPDATE: The sale at Sotheby’s was considerably more successful than the catastrophe that was the Christie’s sale. The first part grossed slightly more than $57 million, while the “Moretti” sale pulled in nearly $6.5 million.
ORIGINAL POST: There are several things that standout in Sotheby’s Old Masters sale in New York January 29, 2015, including the $5,000 Constable that’s now estimated at $2-3 million, a large selection of “gold ground” paintings, an intriguing and small 16th century Italian oil on copper of unknown attribution, a decent selection of Dutch and Flemish works and what’s happening with Clara Peeters’ market? A still-life by her labeled “important” when sold at auction on 2001 is estimated below its sale price of fourteen years ago.
Sotheby’s also has 32 “Selected Renaissance and Mannerist Works of Art Assembled by Fabrizio Moretti”, the Florence-based dealer, including two panels by Lorenzo Veneziano.
This large panel by Sano di Pietro, about there is speculation that he may also be the so-far unidentified Master of the Osservanza (I don’t buy it), is according to the sale catalogue “well preserved and newly-discovered” (despite the evident vertical and horizontal cracks in the panel’s lower register). This is apparently the central panel from a dismembered polyptych – and while Sano may be “one of the most successful artists in Siena in the fifteenth century,” I’ve always found his egg-shaped heads and tendency to cloying rather off putting.
The Massys has had an on-again-off-again attribution history and last sold at Christie’s New York October 17, 2006 as “Attributed to Quinten Massys,” where it made $744,000 against a $150,000-200,000 estimate. The sale catalogue states: “The Madonna of the Cherries was recently examined firsthand by Maximiliaan P.J. Martens and Peter van den Brink, who both agree that this is an autograph work by Quinten Massys, and Prof. dr. Martens will be including it in the catalogue raisonné of the artist that he is preparing in collaboration with Dr. Annick Born.”
This elegant and enigmatic gothic panel requires some TLC. The sale catalogue says this “is closest to the work of Nicolás Francés,” an obscure but talented artist.
While his name implies French origin, Francés lived and worked in León in the northwest of Spain, where he was regularly commissioned to paint for the León Cathedral. He completed a series of wall paintings depicting the Passion for the Cathedral’s cloister between 1451 and 1461, though very few other works by the artist have survived.
The detailing and punch work are beautiful, and compositionally I find it compelling.
This panel combines the nascent naturalism of pictorial depiction emerging in late 13th century Italy (with the works of Cimabue and Duccio) with its Byzantine antecedents from Constantinople. According to the sale catalogue:
Roberto Longhi was first to publish the panel in 1947, believing it at the time to be the work of an anonymous Byzantine master of exceptional skill … It was not until 1966 … that the scholar recognized the hand as that of a Bolognese miniaturist, whose illuminations appear in a bible created for Pope Clement VII, now in the Bibliotèque Nationale, Paris (BN Ms Lat. 18). Longhi compared the present composition with a crucifixion scene illustrating a leaf of the Gospel of Saint Matthew (left). The two scenes are unmistakably the same hand. Not only is the Christ figure surprisingly similar, but the cross is treated in the same manner, planed into six facets to create a geometric effect.
The present Crucifixion is a rare example of panel painting from this period in Bologna. As Longhi recognized, this was not the work of a Byzantine master inspired by Western painting, but rather a Bolognese artist enthralled by influences of the Orient. As Massimo Medica asserts, this Crucifixion is an exceptionally rare example of the pictorial productivity of the Master of the Bible Lat. 18 who, alongside the Master of the Gerona Bible, pioneered the so-called “second style” of Bolognese manuscript decoration in the latter part of the 1200s. Much like in Venice and Siena, the circulation of Byzantine devotional images would have been diffuse in Bologna at this time. Byzantine tendencies therefore bled into traditional Bolognese painting, with local artists creating a hybrid style visible in literary illuminations, devotional pictures and even monumental decoration. The result was a rich and intricate synthesis of highly decorative oriental models with the pathos and complexity injected by the Florentine and Bolognese masters. Here, the Greek inscription on the lateral bar of the cross is an overt reference to the Eastern world. The sharp, geometricized folds in the drapery, the elongated, stylized limbs, all recall Byzantine paradigms. Yet the treatment of the Christ figure is testament to the influence of Cimabue and Duccio and, similarly, the poignancy of Saint Francis’ emotion as he clings to the base of the cross is entirely Emilian.
From the catalogue:
In 1984, Robert Gibbs recognized this impressive panel as the work of [Emilian brothers] Bartolomeo and Jacopino da Reggio, citing its affinity with a triptych signed, HANC TABULA(M) FECERU(N)T BA(R)TOLOMEU(S) ET JACOPINU(S) D(E) REGIO, in the Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan (inv. no. 6019). The present painting is very close in style to the Brera to complex, particularly in the treatment of the Christ figure and the positioning of the attending angels. The centurion in armor, here shown minus his helmet, is almost identical to that in the signed painting, turning slightly to the right, his right arm crooked and his left hand grasping the long curved dagger with its curiously forked bolster.
The catalogue essay starts out on a triumphant note: “When this picture reemerged on the art market in 2001 (see Provenance), it was one of the most important additions in recent years to the limited corpus of Clara Peeters, among the greatest still life specialists of the seventeenth century.” But look at the provenance and you’ll find the old Clara’s renown seems to have dimmed. The painting sold at Christie’s in London on December 12, 2001, for $715,258, presumably to London-based dealer Richard Green who in turn sold it to Bernard Palitz, from whose estate this is being sold. Now it’s estimated at $500,000-700,000. It would probably have to sell for at least $1 million for the Palitz estate to recoup its investment.
The van de Velde is one of a handful of Dutch and Flemish works highlighted in a short pre-sale video produced by Sotheby’s. “This composition in black and white, a remarkable fusion of painting and drawing, is usually described as a pen-painting (after the Dutch penschilderij).” This work is one of about 30 “pen-paintings” from the 1640s. According to the catalogue:
The technique probably derives from the work of Hendrick Goltzius … Over the course of his long career [van de Velde] made relatively few traditional oil paintings in color, preferring instead the pen-painting, and he viewed himself primarily as a draftsman, signing his letters “Scheepsteickenaer” (literally ship’s draftsman). He spent most of his professional life aboard ships, recording on paper the events that passed before his eyes. His pen-paintings were in a sense translations of those shipboard drawings into more permanent works of remarkable clarity and directness, which were sought after and highly valued by his contemporaries.
According to the sale catalogue:
Aert van der Neer painted the Frozen River at Sunset in or shortly after 1660, a period that was a high point for Dutch landscape painting and for the artist himself. It embodies his fascination with the people and the world around him and most notably the effect of light on a winter landscape and how it can transform the content and mood of a composition. Wolfgang Schulz, in his monograph on Van der Neer, describes it as a masterpiece and compares its remarkable coloristic effects to the Winter Scene at Sunset with a Beacon to the Left in the Wallace Collection, London (inv. no. P-127).
We know little about Van der Neer’s early life or even his place of birth, but his earliest dated painting is a genre scene from 1632. His first dated landscape is from the following year and by the mid-1640s he had established himself as a landscape painter and was beginning to specialize in the subjects for which he became best known: moonlight subjects, twilight landscapes and winter scenes. In the last category, his debt to Hendrick Avercamp is clear. Moving away from the tonal landscapes and more focused depictions of his more immediate predecessors, Van der Neer returned instead to the broader views and compositional motifs that Avercamp had made famous earlier in the century. He even included the depiction of snow itself – bright white on the ground, buildings and tree limbs, which had largely disappeared in the more monochromatic landscapes of the intervening years.
But it is Van der Neer’s treatment of light, both ambient and reflected, that is most extraordinary and what lifts him far above his contemporaries. Although the sky is blue and pink, lit by the setting sun, a range of cumulus clouds boiling on the horizon, these colors are barely reflected by the icy surface of the river. It is leaden in color, touched with shades of yellow and green, and chills us to look at. The details of the foreground are set crisply before us, but in the distance a mist seems to rise from the ice, blurring the windmill and the buildings around it, and finally disappearing into the cloud bank. It is a cold day and although the people skate and walk about, there is a certain restraint and inwardness about them as if in response to the frigid surroundings.
This is a fascinating little oil on copper whose authorship has yet to be determined. The palette is deciding Venetian and the feel Northern so the painting has been attributed to Paolo Veronese, Pietro Candido, Lambert Sustris and Johann Rottenhammer. Compositionally, according to the catalogue, the painting “ultimately derives from a Pietà designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti for his friend, Vittoria Colonna, marchioness of Pescara. It is not known whether Michelangelo executed the eventual painting but his drawing, dated to circa 1546, survives today in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston (inv. no. 1.2.o.16). The design for the Virgin’s pose, with her raised arms outstretched and face turned upward toward heaven, enjoyed great popularity, and was employed by Alessandro Allori, Marcello Venusti and Battista del Moro, among others.”
This is the sort of work that was designed to dazzle – within its small confines, Brueghel has created a fantastical world crowded with exotic animals amidst a verdant landscape. In the right background a contemporary festival is in progress. The painting comes from a group of the artist’s Paradise landscapes – “Brueghel painted the present work only two years after his very first Paradise Landscape, now in the Doria Pamphilij, Rome.” From the catalogue:
The present work is, in fact, Brueghel’s first known painting in which he sets the scene from Genesis 7:1-4, in which the animals are called to Noah’s ark in an Eden-like paradise. It is dated 1596, so he either painted it while in Milan with his patron Cardinal Federico Borromeo, or shortly after on his return to Antwerp in October of that year. As the work comes from a Milanese collection, it is most likely that Brueghel painted it in Italy and left it there when he returned to the Netherlands. In depicting the plenitude and beauty of God’s creation with such evident delight, he marries the Cardinal’s religious views to his own artistic preferences and in doing so creaties a painting of beguiling charm and beauty.
He lovingly depicts the variety of creatures waiting to enter the ark, though contrary to the Biblical story in only a few cases are they in pairs. He is mainly concerned with presenting the animals from a characteristic viewpoint so as to be easily identified; thus two delightful peacock-like birds float in the sky as if the wind under their exotic tails were keeping them aloft rather than their wings. The lion and leopard are each in profile, perhaps to clearly distinguish one from another, and a doe and stag are pictured with their heads turned in so that the male’s antlers can be clearly seen. In the lower left corner, closest to the viewer, is a lovely dapple grey horse who, for some reason, has his tongue sticking out.
From the catalogue:
In the first half of his career Salomon van Ruysdael was primarily a painter of tonal landscapes, much in the style of Jan van Goyen. However, in about 1640, he began to compose what came to be called more classicizing landscapes, consisting of more centralized compositions, brighter colors and a new emphasis on cloud-filled skies. At the same time he also began to paint marines. The name may suggest stormy seascapes, but in fact Ruysdael’s marines are generally restricted to calm, inland waters. A few sailboats are set against a high sky, often at dawn or dusk, and in the far distance is a town. In the mid-1650s, Ruysdael further refined this genre, painting a group of small panels in upright rather than horizontal format. The result was a still greater emphasis on the sky, which now took up more than three-quarters of the composition, and the billowing clouds, which provided the dramatic element in an otherwise peaceful scene. Today we know of about a dozen panels of roughly the same dimensions as this one and with similar compositions.
From the catalogue:
The present work, which was previously known only from an engraving by Gérard Edelinck … is an important addition to Coypel’s oeuvre, in terms of both its artistic conception and for its connection to Louis XIV and the French court. Dating from the artist’s early period, it is one of only two or three remaining paintings from a project commissioned by Charles Perrault, a great literary figure and art theorist as well as an aide to Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s chief minister. Although ostensibly an Allegory of Music, elements in the composition itself, as well as literary and external pictorial evidence, allow us to identify it as a Portrait of Mme. de Maintenon with the Natural Children of Louis XIV.
The picture was originally part of a complex ceiling design depicting the Arts and Sciences commissioned by Perrault for his house in the rue Neuve des Bon-Enfants, Paris. The program was intended for the Cabinet des Beaux-Arts, a relatively modest sized room, about 8.5 by 4.5 meters, within the house. There were eleven separate compositions executed by some of the most popular painters in France in the 1680s, mainly pupils of Charles Le Brun, including, among others Charles de la Fosse, Jean-Baptiste Corneille, Louis de Boulogne, Claude Audran II and Antoine Coypel, and must have been executed between 1681 and 1684 given the activities of the various artists involved. Although Coypel was still at the beginning of his career, he had already completed a number of important commissions and had been received in the Académie Royale for his painting of Louis XIV Reposing in Glory after the Peace of Nijmegen, now in the Musée Fabre, Montpelier.
According to the sale catalogue:
This is the earliest dated view by Panini of the interior of the Pantheon in Rome. The work is in excellent condition and is a wonderful snapshot of figures marvelling at the spectacular construction around them, in much the same way as they do today. Panini offers us a broad spectrum of the social tapestry of Rome in 1732: the spirited figures include soldiers, clergymen, mendicants and other people at prayer, all dwarfed by the ancient Roman temple. As is typical of Panini’s great works, the meticulously observed architecture, particularly the Corinthian capitals, is bathed in the warm and inviting glow of Rome’s afternoon light.
This work last sold at auction at Christie’s in London on July 10, 2013 as by a “Follower of John Constable” for $5,212 (against an estimate of $760-1,200). Clearly, someone got lucky: “This Salisbury Cathedral from the Meadows is a rediscovered preparatory work for one of John Constable’s most celebrated masterpieces, now in the Tate, London.”
From the sale catalogue:
This tranquil London scene, looking eastward across Saint James’s Park toward the Horse Guards building and the Banqueting House, Whitehall, beyond, is an exquisite example of views from Canaletto’s English period. In May of 1746, Canaletto transferred his studio to London, perhaps in pursuit of fresh challenges, following two decades of prolific Venetian vedute painting. The outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740 had discouraged English visitors from undertaking the Grand Tour, and these had made up the majority of Canaletto’s patrons and this lack of clientele may have been a further factor in his decision to move. The artist must have found success in Britain, however, as he remained there long after the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that brought an end to the hostilities in October 1748. The painting is presumed to date to 1749, when the old, red brick Horse Guards had been condemned. This perhaps captured the imagination of the artist, compelling him to record the architecture in painted form for posterity. Given the lush foliage, it is likely this painting was executed in May or June of 1749, prior to the building’s demolition which began late that same year.
A featured lot in the Moretti part of the sale is this pair of panels by Lorenzo Veneziano that would have been among a series that flanked a central panel of the Madonna and Child. The sale catalogue notes:
Intensely naturalistic, these graceful figures are of exceptional quality and are entirely in keeping with Lorenzo Veneziano’s mature period. An artist of remarkable talent, Lorenzo was unequivocally the leading painter in Venice in the second half of the 14th century. His work was desired as much on the terrafirma as in Venice and, returning from trips beyond the city, he brought with him inspiration from the mainland. Lorenzo’s influence was as significant as it was diffuse, he introduced a naturalism, a fluency of draftmanship and a vitality of figure pose that had never before been seen in Venetian art. Here, for example, the demure and languid figure of Saint Catherine appears almost to sway before the viewer, while Saint Sigismund’s pose is direct, his spurred feet planted firmly and his gaze determined. The lyricism of the cascading drapery lines, the naturalism of the yawning folds and the impeccable transitions of shimmering tones are all telling of Lorenzo’s hand. Great care has been taken in the representation of detail, from the arrangement of folds at Saint Catherine’s feet, to the individual pelts of fur lining Saint Sigismund’s mantel and the tiny buttons fastening it at his shoulder.
This is a very refined work and the extensive and lyrical use of decorative punch work makes the celestial gold ground space even more exquisite. The figuration is less impressive, thought he Magdelene at the base of the cross is especially dramatic. The catalogue’s discussion of attribution is worth reading:
This intimate scene of the Crucifixion, previously unpublished, was almost certainly intended for private devotion within the domestic sphere. The marks along the left edge may be traces left by hinges, suggesting the panel once formed the right wing of a portable diptych. This Crucifixion scene would likely have been accompanied by a Madonna and Child at left. Despite the distinctive brushwork and punch decoration, details of the painting’s authorship remain somewhat elusive, and scholarly opinion regarding its city of origin is divided.
In a private communication with the present owner, Everett Fahy proposed an attribution to Naddo Ceccarelli, a Sienese painter active circa 1330 to 1360. Once considered a retardataire follower of Simone Martini, Ceccarelli is now recognized as playing a more formative role in the development of Sienese painting in the second half of the 14th century. The elaborately decorated border certainly recalls Ceccarelli’s ornamental style, as does the impressive tempera coloration in the drapery, particularly the rose hues in the mantle of Saint John the Evangelist. Andrea De Marchi also judges this panel to be Sienese, though dating to later in the century, and proposes it to be the work of Paolo di Giovanni Fei, active between 1369 and 1411. De Marchi notes that the punch work does not appear to be in keeping with the Siensese figures and suggests the gold and punch work may have been modified at a later stage. At a time when the dominant tradition among his Sienese contemporaries was in imitation of Simone Martini, Fei was highly sought-after for his refreshingly ‘modern’ and vivacious style. The faces of the Virgin and of Christ in this painting are remarkably similar to those in another Crucifixion by Fei, listed by Federico Zeri as on the art market in Rome in 1983-1984.
Laurence Kanter disagrees that the panel is Sienese, proposing instead that its author may be Umbrian. Kanter suggests the artist may have been active in Assisi, noting the influence of Pietro Lorenzetti and Giotto. Kanter observes similarities between this panel and a group of paintings published by Miklòs Boskovits as “Master of the Pomposa Chapterhouse”, though he does not believe it to be by the same hand. That master painted the cycle of frescos decorating the chapterhouse of the abbey at Pomposa, near Ferrara after which he takes his name. Smaller works by the artist include a tentatively attributed Madonna and Child, dating to circa 1310-1315, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (inv. no. 47.143) and a Crucifixion, dating to circa 1320, in the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, Madrid (inv. no. 260.1930.23). Both Kanter and Gaudenz Freuler assert that the decorative border is like no other punch work found in Sienese painting of the period.
This large Giovanni da Rimini painted crucifix last sold at Christie’s Goudstikker Sale in July 2007 for $62,400. According to the sale catalogue, it is one of a series of large crucifixes produced by the artist who was strongly influenced by Giotto.
According to the sale catalogue:
This … panel painting, of monumental scale, was only recently restored to the oeuvre of Girolamo Macchietti by Marta Privitera … Privitera, alerted to the existence of the painting by Sylvie Béguin and Aidan Weston-Lewis, gave the panel to Macchietti, an attribution upheld by Carlo Falciani who declared it to be a masterpiece by the artist. When included in the 1987 exhibition, Paintings from Emilia, 1500 – 1700, the painting and its accompanying preparatory drawing, now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, were thought to be the work of Jacopo Bertoia.
The final work in the sale is this elegant Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints by Jacopo di Cione that dates to the 1370s that may or may not have been the central panel of a triptych (this is disputed). The figuration is refined, the punch work a brilliant composition complement and the overall environment serene and beatific. A painting I would gladly own.
Breaking News – According to the New York Times, Thomas Collins (known as Thom), director of the Pérez Art Museum Miami, previously known as the Miami Art Museum, will take over as director of the Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia in mid-March. He will “succeed Derek Gillman, who stepped down at the end of 2013 after leading the museum for seven years and was recently named the chairman of the Impressionist and Modern art department at Christie’s auction house.”
Mr. Collins, 46, who also served for five years as director of the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, N.Y., said he was drawn to the Barnes not only because it was one of the places where he first learned about art while growing up in the Philadelphia suburbs, but also because of the philosophy of its founder, Albert C. Barnes, a pharmaceutical tycoon who cast it more as a teaching institution than as a traditional museum.
“I’ve always thought of myself as an educator,” said Mr. Collins, who added that he felt that the Barnes had “really never been able to bridge to that great academic community in and around Philadelphia” — schools like the University of Pennsylvania, Temple University, Drexel University and Swarthmore College, his undergraduate alma mater.
The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts announced on Christmas Eve the acquisition of The Visitation, an oil on canvas by the 17th Italian Baroque painter Mattia Preti. The museum’s press release states:
The Visitation is an exceptional religious scene by the Baroque master Mattia Preti, whose work illustrates the realistic tendencies perfected by fellow Italian artist, Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi). Preti is generally described as the last great exponent of Caravaggesque naturalism, and here he revels in the tenderness of the scene unlike the coarse treatments of some of his counterparts. Especially appropriate to the Christmas season, this painting depicts the meeting of the Virgin Mary and her cousin Elizabeth, the first episode in the life of Christ recorded by Luke.
Preti, although born in Calabria and active in Naples and Malta later in his career, was working in Rome at the time this painting was produced. The museum’s holdings include important works by great artists active in Naples including Luca Giordano, Paolo de Matteis, Francesco Solimena, Salvator Rosa, and Artemisia Gentileschi. The addition of this work further enhances VMFA’s collection as a destination for the study of the Neapolitan baroque.
In this powerful and dramatic painting, Preti represents the meeting of the Virgin Mary with her older cousin Elizabeth. Mary hastened to visit her kinswoman following the Annunciation by the Angel Gabriel. Elizabeth, who was soon to give birth to St. John the Baptist, recognizes that Mary has been chosen as the mother of the Son of God, and greets her with the words “Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. . . . For lo, as soon as the voice of thy salvation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.” (Luke 1:42-44)
“This old master painting will become a visitor favorite, as well as a touchstone for the artist,” Director Alex Nyerges said. “We can think of no better Christmas gift to the commonwealth than exquisite art for all to enjoy.”
UPDATE 2: Artnet points to an article in The Independent, which claims that Turner’s Rome, from Mount Aventine was sold by the father of Lord Dalmeny, chairman of Sotheby’s UK and a father of five who is getting divorced from his wife of 20years: ‘Hinting at the reason for his 85-year-old father’s decision to sell the painting, Lord Dalmeny is said to have dubbed it “Rome, from Mount Alimony”.’
According to The Independent:
He has a reputation as a larger-than-life character – helped by his willingness to act the comic. At an event to mark what would have been the late Freddie Mercury’s 65th birthday in 2011, Lord Dalmeny wore a grey suit, cut away at the back to reveal the suspenders, PVC shorts and fishnet stockings he was wearing underneath.
UPDATE 1: The energy in the room was palpable starting from the first lot through to the record breaking £30,332,500 (or $47,430,455) for the Turner. Of 43 lots offered seven works failed to sell, with the sale bringing in £53,972,000 (inclusive of the buyers fees or $84,423,002).
The first lot, a Teniers shot past it’s £150,000 high estimate to hammer t £350,000 (£422,500 with fees or $660,875), followed by a Joos de Momper that more than doubled it’s £150,000 high estimate to make £320,000 (£386,500 with fees or $604,563). Aggressive bidding for a Pieter Brueghel the Younger pushed the work to £2.25 million (£2,602,500 with fees or $4,070,831), to the same buyer as the Teniers.
The Asselijn (below) opened at £220,000 and hammered at a comfortable £500,000 (£602,500 with fees or $942,431), followed by a Jan van der Heyden, that hammered £60,000 below it’s £250,000 low estimate at £190,000 (£230,500 with fees or $360,548) to the same buyer as the Teniers and Brueghel.
Canaletto’s view of the Piazza San Marco hammered below its low estimate for £4.8 million (£5,458,500 with fees or $8,538,186). However, in a post-sale announcement, the Sotheby’s Web site currently says:
This is not true – the pre-sale estimate does not include the buyer’s premium. This lot missed its low estimate by £200,000. They are certainly justified in promoting the success of the sale, but as a publicly traded company, they should know better than to make this false assertion.
While both the Cranach Faun Family and the Bruyn failed to sell, the underestimated Gentileschi sold for £500,000 (£602,500 with fees or $942,431), and the tiny Brueghel river scene made a substantial hammer price of £450,000 (£542,500 with fees or $848,579). A Crossiers Prodigal Son saw very spirited bidding that took to nearly four times it £150,000 highest estimate, hammering at £550,000 (£662,500 with fees or $1,036,283).
The Coorte still life of peaches (below) that last sold for £2 million, opened at £1.1 million managed to make a respectable hammer price of £3.0 million, its high estimate (£3,442,500 with fees or $5,384,759). The Turner opened at £12 million and crept timidly at first, but picked up steam to hammer for a record breaking £27 million (£30,332,500 with fees or $47,430,455).
ORIGINAL POST: A large, richly detailed Turner painting of early 19th century Rome, estimated at £15-20 million, leads Sotheby’s 43-lot December 3, 2014 Old Masters evening sale in London. Other highlights include a classic Canaletto view of the Piazza San Marco, a peculiar Lucas Cranach the Elder – The Faun Family – and an Adriaen Coorte still life that last appeared at Bonham’s on December 7, 2011.
Turner’s panoramic view of the Eternal City, which last changed hands in 1878 (for a then record of £6,142), was a “direct commission from his close friend and patron, Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro of Novar (1797-1864),” according to the sale catalogue, which dedicates more than 40 pages to describing the history, condition and even the frame of this lot – there’s also a short video. According to the Telegraph: “The only comparable work, commissioned by the same patron, was acquired by the Getty Museum from Sotheby’s in July 2010 for £29.7 million” – the current auction record for the artist. Will this work break the record?
The work’s light palette gives a sense of exuberance to the city, which contrasts the catalogue’s description of Rome at the time: “The city that Turner visited in the 1820s and 1830s was … a city in decline, its buildings in generally poor state of repair and its streets badly maintained.” Rome was part of the Papal States, which had interesting theories about urban development and general welfare: “[T]he papal regime regarded street lighting as the work of the devil. Similar obscurantism ruled out vaccination and railways: Gregory VIII, the pope of the 1830s … banned railway construction in his territories.”
The painting’s exceptional condition is to having never been relined (a process that would flatten the impasto), there’s no evidence it has ever been cleaned, and has remained framed and under glass for most of its existence.
The Asselijn is an unpublished and intriguing work in his oeuvre, which is largely Italianate, as it covers an historic event. According to the sale catalogue:
In the late winter of 1651, stormy weather and tidal surges caused extensive flooding in the Dutch province of North Holland, the areas exposed to the Diemerdijk east of Amsterdam being particularly affected. Finally, on the night of 5–6 March, strong north-westerly winds and a high spring tide caused the Sint Anthonisdijk to rupture in two places, flooding much of the city of Amsterdam. There were numerous eye-witness accounts of the tragedy, and as soon as the waters had subsided sufficiently, artists flooded out of Amsterdam and beyond to record the event. … Asselijn also painted the reconstruction of the Sint Anthonisdijk which took place in the summer of 1652, in a work in Berlin, although the two pictures are of different proportions and were probably not conceived as pendants.2 The Reconstruction is a rather more conventional painting by Asselijn, being bathed in a warm almost Italianate light and peopled by peasants familiar from his Bambocciate, although billowing clouds to the left allude to the disaster of the year before.
There is an extensive catalogue entry and video for this painting. From the lot notes:
From the beginning of the 1730s, the decade that would establish Canaletto as the greatest of all exponents of the Italianveduta, this quintessential view of Venice has enjoyed a particularly distinguished English provenance and is here shown in public for the first time since the ground-breaking Manchester Art Treasures exhibition back in 1857. The Piazza of San Marco in Venice, with the Basilica di San Marco and the famous Campanile has always been recognised as one of the most famous of all European settings, and has come to occupy a central place in the work of Canaletto, the city’s most famous view painter. … The number of variants of this scene that Canaletto painted throughout his career is evidence of the popularity that it enjoyed with eighteenth-century visitors to Venice. The earliest of these, and at over two metres in width, much the largest, is the painting [from 1723] now in the Museo Thyssen in Madrid, generally acknowledged as the masterpiece of Canaletto’s early career [below]. The Madrid painting can be dated to around 1723, for it clearly shows the new pavement of the Piazza, with its white geometrical design by Andrea Tirali, being laid, which is documented to that year.
Although there has been general agreement in assigning the present canvas to Canaletto’s early period, there does not seem to have been any scholarly unanimity as to an exact date of execution … Most recently Charles Beddington has kindly suggested a potential dating to around 1730.7 By this date Canaletto had eschewed the use of the dark brown grounds employed in his earlier canvases such as that in Madrid, favouring instead a lighter ground as here. The tonality is cool and clear, notably around the Basilica and the adjoining buildings. The loose and animated handling of the brushwork in the clouds around the Basilica in the present canvas recalls Canaletto’s treatment in the New York painting of the late 1720s. The neatly ruled perspective lines and the closely observed detail are also similar in both pictures. Taken together, these factors would seem to support a dating to around 1730, perhaps just prior to the Fogg and Woburn paintings. Although it is constantly asserted that Canaletto always subordinated topographical accuracy for pictorial concerns, that is not particularly the case in the present canvas. Unlike his later capricci the scene is mostly an accurate transcription of reality; only the omission of one window on the Campanile is an obvious change.
From the lot notes:
Painted at the height of the artist’s career, in 1531, this is an outstanding work by Lucas Cranach the Elder, commissioned no doubt by a member of the courtly circle in Wittenberg, where the artist was in the employ of the Electors of Saxony. The subject represents the mythological depiction of wild people, forest dwellers or demigods, which had long fascinated Cranach and first appeared in his works in prints and drawings, but culminated in a series of panel paintings from the second half of the 1520s onwards. … The subject of the Faun Family relates to the romantic topos of the ‘wild people who live in the forest’, which can be found in the Metamorphoses, a mythological moralizing poem by the ancient writer Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD), and in De Rerum Natura by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (circa 99 BC- 55 AD). Both texts were widely known during the Middle Ages, but they enjoyed increased popularity following their reintroduction during the Renaissance. At the beginning of the 16th century scholars contemplated the original state of mankind before civilization, a notion triggered in part by the accounts of travellers who witnessed the ancient tribes in the newly discovered Americas, as well as the idealization of ideas of ancient pagan traditions during the religious turmoil during the Reformation.
The Bruyn Coronation of about 1515 is a brilliant, radiant and beguiling work. A winning mix of the corporeal and the mystical. According to the lot notes:
This luminous representation of the Coronation of the Virgin is a major early work by Bartholornaus Bruyn the Elder, the dominant figure in the Cologne School in the first half of the 16th Century. The picture is important not only for providing a synthesis of the late Gothic tradition with more contemporary, Renaissance elements, but also for demonstrating the assimilation of strong early Netherlandish influences within the context of contemporary Rhenish art. With it, Bruyn brings inventions of the art of the Netherlands into the Rhenish vernacular. The hierarchical composition and the placing of the figures upon a traditional paved floor is influenced by late Gothic prototypes, which can be found in works by artists active in Cologne in the mid to late 15th Century. The treatment of the firmament of angels, however, shows an awareness of new modes of pictorial representation, which developed as the influence of the Renaissance was felt more widely in Northern Europe. Bruyn’s early development as an artist took place in the workshop of Jan Joest van Kalkar, which he entered in 1505. Although Jan Joest was German, he was profoundly influenced by the art of the Low Countries and in particular by the artists Gerard David and Geertgen tot sint Jans. The dramatic use of light employed by Bruyn in the Coronation of the Virgin clearly demonstrates Jan Joest’s influence, but the composition is entirely of Bruyn’s own devising. Although this is one of the artist’s first independent works, his unique artistic personality was already well developed.
The catalogue says this painting, a late work by the artist, is offered for sale at auction for the first time. I am surprised at the low estimate.
From the catalogue:
Paintings such as this, in which the spiritual sufferings of the ascetic hermit Saint Anthony could be depicted in the most vivid pictorial terms, were enormously popular in the Southern Netherlands throughout the first half of the 16th century. Their inspiration was undoubtedly the work of the Flemish painter Hieronymous Bosch (1453–1516) who was the first to explore the theme of the hermit saints in landscapes filled with symbolic imagery. The saint is here seated beneath a hollow tree, the traditional medieval symbol of evil-doing or alchemy. At its base a rat pours ale into a jug which will then be passed to monks and other figures who sit in the tent at the top of the tree, symbolic of both gluttony and lust. A grylle or demon tugs at the saint’s cloak, pulling him towards two reclining figures, a man and a devil disguised as a woman, who together with the apple and jug floating next to them signify the temptation of lust. Behind them more demons drag a tumbril with another naked sinner towards an Infernal head and ‘Hell’ mouth beyond. In front of them a spectacled owl, normally a symbol of wisdom, trudges disconsolately with a crossbow slung across his shoulders. In the far distance, upon a river, pigs – themselves unclean and symbolic of greed and lust – are seen manning a ship, undoubtedly a parody of the late medieval depictions of the Ship of Fools and its representation of Human Folly. This is one of a group of paintings that have been associated in the past with Bosch’s two principal followers, Pieter Huys (1519–84) and Jan Mandijn (c.1500–60), to whom this picture was attributed by M.J. Friedländer at the time of the 1952 sale.
This painting is coming back to auction after only three years when it last sold for slightly more than £2 million, the lot’s current low estimate.
From the catalogue: “Painted in 1662, this is likely the earliest topographical birds-eye view of a British estate, a genre that would become hugely popular over the ensuing decades.”